HKUST Hydraulics Lab
Low frequency setup

Brief Description

The pipe system comprises of a 145 m long, 79 mm diameter HDPE pipe with pump or hydro-pneumatic tank flow and pressure sources. Reynolds number can be varied from 0 (no flow) to 1×10^5 (fully turbulent flow) and the Mach number from 0 to 4×10^(-3). This system includes 24 bends with angles from 70 to 100 degrees and 5 pipe junctions. Pipes are amenable to alteration or substitution, e.g., such as replacing a pipe segment with one that contains a defect or an alternate lining. High-frequency transducers can be added to the system at various tee connections and requires only a 3D-printed base that slides along the pipe using a magnet mechanism. The facility is flexible to various kinds of alterations and fully adaptable to provide a controlled testing environment to validate time-reversal theories.

Other technical specifications and measurement capabilities: 
 

  • Flow is driven by a booster pump or by an air-pressure tank and outflows into a reservoir at the other end.

  • The pump is a vertical multistage centrifugal pump KIKAWA KRS 16-3, with 3 impeller and is operated by a Variable Frequency Drive. 

  • The air-pressure tank is an Aquasystem model VAV1000 of 2160mm in height and 800mm in diameter. Its maximum working pressure is 10 bar.

  • Large size high-frequency transducers with increased sensitivity and low self-noise (e.g. Teledyne TC4032 with receiving sensitivity of -170 dB re 1V/μPa and less than 30 dB re 1μPa/sqrt(Hz) noise for frequencies above 2 kHz) can be inserted in the lab pipeline facility. It can also accommodate B&K (Bruel & Kjaer) hydrophones, model 8104 with receiving sensitivity of –205 dB re 1 V/μPa.

3D and 2D schematic of the system.
3D and 2D schematic of the system.

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KIKAWA multistage booster pump (upstream boundary source # 1).
KIKAWA multistage booster pump (upstream boundary source # 1).

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Buffer tank (water body).
Buffer tank (water body).

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3D and 2D schematic of the system.
3D and 2D schematic of the system.

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High frequency setup

About

A special feature of the setup is the provision for interchangeable sections on the 3-inch copper and one of the two 3-inch HDPE pipes. These 50 cm sections may be replaced by smaller nominal diameter pipes to emulate the presence of a blockage, or by a pipe with a side discharge valve that simulates a leak.

High-frequency transducers can be added to the system at various tee connections and requires only a 3D-printed base that slides along the pipe using a magnet mechanism (see Fig. 6/6). The facility is flexible to various kinds of alterations and fully adaptable to provide a controlled testing environment to validate time-reversal theories. Therefore, it is possible to evaluate the response of both healthy and defected pipelines without the need of extensive system reconstruction or downtime.

Layout of the system.
Layout of the system.

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Real-time view of the system.
Real-time view of the system.

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Sensor placement and position.
Sensor placement and position.

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Layout of the system.
Layout of the system.

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Technical specifications and measurement capabilities: 
 

  • 5 straight pipes, 6.5 meters in length, that are connected to two water-filled reservoirs at their ends.
     



     

  • Transducers: Brüel & Kjær Type 8104 and Type 8103 that may be utilized either as hydrophones or acoustic projectors. 

  • Accelerometers: Brüel & Kjær Type 4326-A Triaxial Accelerometers, mounted on the outer surface of the pipe. 

  • 4 HDPE pipes: with their nominal diameter ranging from 2 to 6 inches 

  • 3-inch copper pipe.

  • 4-inch Acrylic pipe.